Preparing budget construction on your own plot and having a great desire to save on the services of specialized designers, it is quite realistic to draw a plan of the house and get permission to build on their own. The task is not easy, but to some extent doable, even for a man without specialized construction training. To learn what problems must be solved in the drafting of the project, what to anticipate in order to make housing comfortable, read this article.
Competent home project – the destiny of professionals
Architectural plan of the house – part of the construction project. In addition to floor plans of the location of rooms, passageways, staircases, drawings and communication schemes are also developed. Of course, the best option – to order a full package of necessary documentation in the design organization. After all, its preparation requires knowledge of technology, building codes and regulations, skills in preparing schemes and drawings.
Independent design of capital construction is always associated with errors. In the future, in the process of construction and installation work, you may need to correct or modify the decisions made. Nevertheless, although it is impossible to make a high-class cottage project with a full package of drawings, calculations, a well-thought-out estimate, a simplified version of such development, with due diligence, can be done by your own efforts.
Preparing to develop a plan
Developing a construction plan requires a separate consideration of each stage, starting with the purchase of the land.
Choosing a site for construction
Take maximum responsibility in selecting a site for individual housing construction. Criteria for selecting a building site:
- The area of the site. The built-up area of the land must not exceed 30% of the total area of the site. For example, the size of the house can be built on 6 hectares, while respecting the regulations on the sanitary and fire distances between sites 6×6 m.
- The relief of the site. Try not to buy a plot with complex topography and large slopes. This can create problems with the layout of the building, the selection of the type of foundation and drainage. Savings from the purchase of such a site is conditional. Will require significant expenditures on the zero cycle phase of the layout, device retaining walls.
- The state of access roads. It is important that there was no problem to enter the territory of a car, a long truck with materials, crane, mixer with mortar or concrete, and pumping equipment.
- Distance to central highway and bus stop.
- Distance to the nearest store, school, kindergarten. Look at the infrastructure plan for the area, especially if the site is not in the city limits.
- Existing communications, distance to possible connection points.
The cost of building and the size of the house
When purchasing a plot, decide on a budget. The average price of building a square meter area of the house is within 150$. Calculate what kind of house will be enough money to avoid long-term construction. In addition, the legislation for individual housing construction limits the number of floors. The building should not be higher than 3 floors, taking into account the basement and attic.
Obtaining geological data
Before you start designing, find out the composition of the soils on the site, the level of groundwater, the depth of freezing for the area, the accepted seismic activity. Drill a hole at the site and take a core sample. The sample will help determine the layers of the upper geological section as well as the level of groundwater. This data will be needed when calculating the foundations of the house and other structures on the site.
Tying the house project to the site
Perform competent binding of the created or model project to the site is extremely important. You should not be guided by how the neighbors did, but by regulations on fire and sanitary distance between buildings, as well as to comply with the allowed separation from the red lines.
Also, when planting a house, try to face south, which is important by solarization definitions. This keeps the interior temperature balance, especially when installing panoramic glazing. If the northern part of the house will be blind, heat loss will be minimized, and the cost of heating in the winter period will be significantly reduced.
Planning decisions of the project
Make a list of necessary rooms and their number. It may include:
- living room;
- toilets and bathrooms;
- utility rooms and storage rooms;
- boiler room;
- study room;
- billiard room, etc.
Determine what will be on which floor. Below are practical recommendations on how to properly draw the plan of the house with the optimal dimensions and positioning, so that the living of the family members was the most comfortable and convenient.
To make a proper house plan on your own, not only do you need to adhere to the rules of design. In addition, it will be necessary to apply the knowledge of architects and design.
This is usually the largest room on the first floor. The area of the living room is designed depending on the number of residents and frequent visitors, but plan it at least 18 m2. Often a fireplace is built here, a large TV set is installed. Beautiful look panoramic glazing overlooking the green area of the site and a passageway to the terrace. Doors from bedrooms, toilets, baths and other private or service rooms should not go directly to the living room.
The number of bedrooms is calculated on the composition of the family. Separate rooms are designed for parents, children, relatives. For children of different sexes bedrooms should be separate. The best direction of the windows is to the east, and it is not recommended to turn them to the roadway.
Do not try to design bedrooms of large size, but also minimizing in order to get more cells is also not necessary. The square footage is quite sufficient:
for adults with a double bed, closet, furnishings – 16…18 m2;
for children – 12 … 14 m2.
When planning the layout of your kitchen, make sure that the cooking area is separate from the living area. An extraction system will not help odors disperse. The size of the kitchen should be at least 12 m2. In modern cottages kitchens are combined with dining room or living room, but between them are glass or decorative partitions.
The room must be free, to the delight of the hostess, who spends here a significant portion of time.
Toilet and bathroom can be combined. Communications is easier to do, if the bathrooms on each floor are placed one under the other. Their location should be closer to the bedrooms, but not with exits to the living room or kitchen. It is recommended to plan the areas within optimal, but reasonable limits.
Corridors, utility rooms
Keep the hallways so that freely passed 2 people. Doors from rooms should be placed so that they do not block the corridor when opened.
Storage rooms, storerooms are planned on the residual principle.
Attic and roof
Often, instead of a full second floor, an attic is erected. Properly designed attic space is difficult – should try to get a minimum of closed, inaccessible areas.
Under the mansard and the house, design a simple roof. A complex roof looks prettier, but to build it harder, it is more expensive, and the valley adds the risk of leaks.
Important! It is convenient to plan the distance between the load-bearing walls on the size of standard slabs or wood. It is worth checking the assortment of local factory reinforced concrete products or available at the building stores assortment of beams made of wood.
Transferring a house plan to paper
To draw the house on paper (wattman, millimeter) observe the main conditions – for each floor, roof, foundation, plumbing and electrical is formed a separate drawing or axonometric diagram. They are made at the selected scale with detailing.
Study examples of house plans on the Internet or in specialized magazines. Be sure to find one that will be close to your requirements. One way or another, there will be an understanding of how to properly make a plan for your home.
Drawing the perimeter
We choose the scale and on it we draw the outer contour of the building on the sheet. With an indentation inside for the thickness of the walls, draw lines parallel to the first. Shade the resulting perimeter of the outer walls. Orient the plan to the sides of the world as you plant the house on the site. Make copies for the floor and utility drawings.
Design the rooms by floor
Proceed to distribute and draw the interior walls of the individual rooms on the plan, not forgetting the scale. Take into account the above recommendations on the position and size of rooms.
Mark the names of the rooms, their areas, or put numbers and specifications on the plan.
Put the dimensions of the rooms on the drawing.
Think in advance how the utilities will be laid.
Plan the kitchen, toilets, bathrooms, boiler room closer to each other.
When you drew the planned premises of the 1st floor, take a new copy of the plan, design the layout of the rooms on the 2nd floor. Combine the partitions of the 2nd floor with the first. Place the bathrooms and toilets over the same rooms on the first floor. Also draw the size, area, names of the rooms. Similarly drawn basement and attic plans.
Perhaps at first time you will not be able to correctly allocate the rooms, passages, stairs. Prepare different options and choose the appropriate one.
House plan, prepared with your own hands, will be suitable for simple projects. It also comes in handy for starting work to register and obtain a building permit. In addition, contractors from the private brigade can make do with such a plan. However, you should be prepared that it will have to be adjusted in the process of construction. This can lead to massive alterations, unnecessary costs for materials, as well as increase the time of erecting the facility.